Energy efficiency on its territory
With the start of the heating season, the topic of energy efficiency has become particularly relevant. Now only lazy does not speak about this direction of state policy. And there is something, because according to the data of large international organizations and its own structures, it turned out that half of the generated energy is simply lost in Russia.
Considering that 70% of the total energy intensity of the country falls on the housing and utilities sector, of course, it is him who will make significant changes.
There are several reasons for the considerable loss of energy in the housing sector in our vast country. For example, dilapidated communications. Another reason with which you will probably have to work especially actively is the mentality of the domestic consumer. The wasteful use of resources by citizens of the country has evolved over the years. Only now we are slowly approaching the eradication of bad habits, brought up by the broad slogan "Everything is collective, everything is mine."
There are times when we have to think about saving. And not only about saving the resources of our Motherland, but also about the personal budget. Installed counters will now record individual responsibility. If we are accustomed to electricity metering - we try to turn off the light, we are just getting used to the water meters - we fix the taps, then what to do with the new heat energy meters? How to save heat in your house to pay less?
All put on the counter
Given the permanent increase in utility bills, many savvy citizens switched to three-phase electricity meters. Installation of such meters is about 3 000 r. and pays off, depending on how much energy is spent, from 1 month to 1.5 years. In order to save even more, the state will create such conditions that we will gradually switch to energy-saving light bulbs (conventional incandescent light bulbs will gradually disappear from the market). These requirements are spelled out in the Federal Law No. 261 “On Energy Saving”, published last year. It also says that now on all sold household appliances should be marked energy efficiency class, depending on how many watts it consumes.
Relatively recently, the installation of water meters began. They consider not according to standards (depending on how many people are registered), but by how much water is consumed in each apartment. As long as the meters are not installed at all, the savings are considerable — by a factor of 2-3, and the installation of the instrument pays off (about 6,000 rubles) in about 3-4 months.
According to Valentina Filonova, the general director of Askvel, for the last year in Russia there was a slight decrease in water consumption.
How will such an important resource in our climate as heat energy be taken into account? It accounts for about 80% of all energy costs.
Unfortunately, in the Russian housing and public utilities, the heating communications system is so arranged that before the heat reaches consumers, much of it will be “lost” on the way. In addition, almost half of the total heat loss during the cold period accounts for the heating of ventilation air. This is due to the existing ventilation system in our homes. It is called natural and implies "natural" penetration of cold air from the street through the gaps in the old wooden window frames and walls. The calculation of heating in past years was done on the basis of this constant influx of fresh air. Now, to combat the leakage of flat heat, hermetic windows are installed everywhere, the facades of buildings are insulated. At the same time, the heating calculations remained the same, therefore the heat balance in the apartments is disturbed: since there is no place for fresh air to get inside, it becomes stuffy and hot. We open the windows and ... warm the street. Heat losses are obvious.
To normalize this process, the government will oblige us to perform the following actions. From January 1, 2012 in each apartment of a modern construction or in an individual house there will have to appear heat metering devices - heat meters. In older houses, heat meters will be installed on a house or riser. Together with heat meters on radiators, it will be necessary to install thermostats. That is, we will be able to regulate the temperature in our apartment, take this into account according to the meter readings and pay for heat not according to general standards, but each according to its measure of hardening - as much as we heat, we will pay so much.
How to keep warm?
To save heat in your own apartment, of course, first of all, you need to eliminate heat loss: for example, put a reflecting screen behind the battery to warm the air in the apartment, not the wall, and also take care of installing energy-efficient windows. However, do not forget that the hermetic windows prevent the flow of fresh air into the apartment. And this is fraught with diseases, constant fatigue, allergies. To save heat and achieve a favorable microclimate in the room, there are special devices - automatic inlet valves, acting on demand. Such devices were recommended for use in the Order No. 262 of the Ministry of Regional Development, issued this summer.
The valve is a small plastic tube with a movable damper that regulates the flow of fresh air. The valve is installed on the upper part of the frame in a horizontal position, without obstructing the closing of the window. Additional energy consumption for valve operation is not needed. A special sensor-drive device made of polyamide fabric reacts to changes in the humidity of the air in the room, reducing or, conversely, increasing the opening of its flaps. Thus, it is not necessary to follow the supply of fresh air on purpose, which is why they are called automatic. The inlet valves that regulate the flow of air according to the humidity in the room are called hygro-regulated. If the humidity in the apartment has increased, the flaps of the valve open slightly, letting in more fresh air. If no one is home, then the fresh air enters in the "background" mode. The cost of inlet valves - from 1 350 p. Exhaust grates are also hygro-adjustable. They work on the same principle, and when there is no one in the house, they make the minimum air exhaust in order to keep warm. The cost of such devices starts from 2 500 p., They are unpretentious, periodically they only need to be cleaned with a damp cloth.
The described intake valve is called “automatic” (independently regulates the flow of fresh air), and acts “according to need” (depending on the person’s presence in the room). Such qualities of the valve allow it to be attributed to energy-efficient devices.
Interestingly, there are practically no devices meeting the requirements of the Order on the Russian market. The only valves that provide air supply "on demand" were devices of the French manufacturer Aereco. “Hygro-regulated intake valves in combination with special automatic exhaust grilles that work on the same principle can save up to 40% of the heat used for heating ventilation air,” explains Boris Buttsev, Aerco’s leading ventilation and microclimate technician. Installation of specialized fans on the duct riser will help save even more heat. The decision to install such devices must be taken at the collective level among the residents of the entrance.
Installing energy-efficient windows with inlet valves and thermostats on batteries will now allow us to more quickly adapt to new heat metering based on our needs, rather than on municipal calculations. According to experts, after 2012, the energy consumption limit per person per month will be determined, and everything that is above that will be paid about 5 times more expensive. Therefore, as in the case of water meters, it will be more economical to pay only for individually consumed heat. And the devices that ensure its preservation in our apartments will be most welcome.