Women after 40: cholesterol in the blood and 8 more surveys
A popular joke among doctors is that the human body begins to age as soon as it is born. However, in reality, this process starts at about 25 years of age. Particular attention should be paid to their health after 40 years - this is the milestone that most doctors call the entry into the "risk zone" when the most likely occurrence of age-related diseases.
There is a list of studies recommended for all women to pass regularly after 40. Unfortunately, in our country, public consciousness has not yet formed a responsible attitude to the prevention of diseases - we still go to the doctor only when a real problem arises. At the same time, a large number of diseases, including oncological diseases, can be prevented by detecting them at an early, asymptomatic stage, when nothing else bothers.
1. Consultation mammologist
Breast cancer in Russia ranks first in mortality among oncological diseases. After 30 years, the risk of developing breast cancer increases dozens of times, but if detected early, it responds well to treatment.
A mammologist should pay special attention to those who have already had cases of the disease in the family history. However, you should not wait for the annual inspection, if you are worried about pain, discomfort, compaction - in this case, a specialist should be contacted as soon as possible.
Currently, mammography is the most effective way to detect breast cancer. It is a kind of X-ray and allows you to see the smallest formation that can not be felt. If they are detected at an early stage, it is quite possible to do without surgical intervention.
2. Cytological smear (Pap smear)
Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignant neoplasms in women, statistics show more than half a million new cases of the disease throughout the year.
A cytology smear is a test that can be used to determine precancerous or cancerous cells in the vagina and cervix. The study serves to detect cervical cancer in the earliest stages when the disease is treatable. To spend it is worth it, not waiting for the age zone of risk, if HPV (human papilloma virus, HPV) was previously detected, as well as when using hormonal contraceptives, menstrual disorders, a large number of sexual partners.
A cytology smear is taken during a gynecological examination with a special disposable small brush from the outer and inner surface of the cervix. This procedure is painless and takes 5-10 seconds.
Colorectal cancer in second place in terms of mortality in Russia. Every year in our country more than 50,000 new cases are registered. In the initial stages of CRC, it is asymptomatic and is often found at a time when even surgery does not guarantee a successful outcome. Whereas with timely detection of the disease, 9 out of 10 patients can be saved.
Endoscopic examination of the colon (colonoscopy) is considered the "gold standard" for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer. Its separate advantage is that during the examination it is possible not only to detect even the smallest formation, but also to immediately perform a biopsy or remove it to prevent further tumor development.
Unfortunately, even with obvious problems with the intestines, people pull with a colonoscopy. Someone is afraid that it hurts, someone is just ashamed. In fact, during the procedure, the patient lies on his side, covered with a sheet. In some clinics issue special shorts with a hole for a soft endoscope.
As a rule, during the examination there should be no pain. Conducting colonoscopy under general anesthesia is intended more for those who are afraid of psychological discomfort.
Another of the prejudices that prevent indecisiveness is a long and complicated preparation for the procedure. In fact, today, doctors recommend only a three-day, slab-free diet and taking a special liquid drug - 2 liters on the eve and 2 liters on the day of the procedure. All unpleasant cleansing enemas are a thing of the past.
When we talk about “checking blood for cholesterol,” we mean lipidogram.
It is believed that it is dangerous to exceed the norm of cholesterol in the blood, but both its excess and deficiency are harmful. Indeed, in itself, cholesterol is a normal product in the metabolism. It enters the human body partially with food, but the bulk of it is produced by the liver.
Cholesterol is one of the most important components of our body. Cholesterol molecules perform an essential function in the construction of the cell membrane, form the molecular structure of the nerve cells of the brain and spinal cord and lay the foundation for the synthesis of hormones and vitamins, such as vitamin D. But its excess amount in the body adversely affects the vessels, as well as many internal organs , including liver, gallbladder and pancreas.
By controlling the level of cholesterol in the blood, you can quickly identify potentially dangerous changes in fat metabolism, which are the basis of cardiovascular diseases.
5. Analysis of blood glucose levels.
To date, 422 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes, of which about 9 million Russians. Diabetes is the fourth largest disease in the world that causes death. At the same time, more than half of the inhabitants of the planet do not even suspect that they can have such a diagnosis, because this disease can develop imperceptibly over the years, without any special symptoms. But then it leads to serious complications, having a devastating effect on the cardiovascular system, liver, kidneys and other internal organs. Nearly half of diabetics have complications related to the nervous system.
If you have a history of overweight, burdened heredity, smoking, alcohol abuse, unbalanced diet and a sedentary lifestyle, the blood glucose level should be kept under constant control.
6. Analysis of thyroid hormones
The thyroid gland secretes hormones necessary for the normal functioning of all organs and systems throughout life. In elderly people, thyroid disease is observed twice as often as in other age groups, and much more often in women.
Malfunctions in the functioning of the thyroid gland are rather difficult to diagnose, since they often manifest themselves in a variety of ailments, at first glance, with thyroid unrelated - here are depression, and disorders of the heart, and decreased libido.
A blood test that shows an oversupply or lack of specific thyroid hormones will help to recognize the cause. In case of detection of deviations from the norm, an endocrinologist will help you select the appropriate treatment and replacement therapy.
7. Consultation of a cardiologist
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death worldwide: for no other reason, do so many people die every year as from CVD. More than 75% of CVD deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries, which include Russia. Ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, rheumatic heart disease, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism are among the most common diseases.
The zone of risk of heart disease and stroke primarily includes those who do not care about healthy nutrition, physical exertion, abuse of alcohol and tobacco. It is also worth taking into account stress and hereditary factors. Thus, at risk - almost everyone. Therefore, a cardiologist consultation is a necessary item. He will tell you what tests and examinations you need to pass first - as a rule, this is a blood test for cholesterol and an ECG.
Recently, a general “fashion” for oncomarkers has been observed - frightened by the likelihood of imperceptible development of cancer, people hope that such an analysis can be their salvation. Unfortunately, it's not that simple. In any case, doing such tests on one’s own initiative without prior consultation with an oncologist is simply meaningless.
However, there is a tumor marker CA-125, which, in accordance with the clinical guidelines of the Association of Oncologists of Russia, is used as a screening method and is found in malignant ovarian tumors.
If ovarian cancer is detected and cured before the tumor spreads beyond the limits of the organ, then the five-year survival rate is 93%. However, in such early stages, ovarian cancer is detected in less than 20% of cases. And here the crucial role can be played by a blood test for a specific tumor marker.
9. Eye test
Spending a lot of time behind the screen of a computer or smartphone, we often ignore a decrease in visual acuity, blaming it on the general fatigue or eye strain after a long work at the monitor. It happens that reduced vision is not so obvious and manifests itself in the form of increased eye fatigue and headaches, so a person may not even suspect that you should consult a doctor.
At the same time, according to statistics, the risk of various eye diseases in women is significantly higher than in men. So, the probability of developing glaucoma in women is three times higher. Annual prevention of glaucoma is especially important, since this disease is insidious, it does not manifest itself for a long time, and it can be treated in its early stages, while in the later stages it ends in blindness.
In addition, during the examination of the ophthalmologist as the eyeball can be diagnosed many diseases that people do not even know: heart, vascular changes, angiopathy, diabetes.
Particularly attentive to eye health should be those who already wear glasses or lenses, undergo eye surgery, have problems with the retina or the potential heredity of glaucoma or cataracts.
For those who already have reduced visual acuity, periodic checks will track the relevance of the assigned vision correction and reduce its further fall and eye strain due to incorrect correction. If you prefer glasses to lenses, it should be remembered that a permanently used foreign body can cause changes in the retina that are hardly noticeable or not visible at all without visiting a specialist.