Turnkey house: how long will it take to build a house according to all the rules
Anyone wants his country house or garden house to be built as soon as possible. Alas, the pace of work is often determined not by the skill of the builders, but by the technologies used and the physicochemical processes that take place in the building materials. Let's try to figure out how long one or another stage of building houses takes and what problems a rash rush can cause.
Quality concrete work
As it is known, the hardening of a cement mixture is not just a drying of the material, but a chemical process of the interaction of silicates and aluminates with water molecules. Cement mixtures gain strength for many days, depending on the temperature and humidity of the external environment. Therefore, the time factor plays a leading role in pouring monolithic concrete structures for a private house: pile, strip and slab foundations, interfloor ceilings, stairs and load-bearing walls.
Experts say that under normal weather conditions (temperatures around + 20oC and a relative humidity of 90-100%), concrete grades M250-M300, which is usually used for these purposes, reaches 70% of the calculated strength on the 7th day, and 100% strength - only on the 28th day. However, in practice, much depends not only on the weather, but also on the type of monolithic structures.
So, when pouring the strip foundation, it should take at least three weeks before it will be possible to start building walls. Work on the raw foundation is strictly prohibited. This can lead to its subsidence and deformation, and ultimately - to the destruction of structures.
If a stone house is being built in 2-3 floors, then after the construction of the first floor it is recommended to suspend the work for 7-10 days so that the foundation can settle.
Cement mortars are also used in the construction of external and internal walls of brick and other piece materials. It is established that the solution in the brickwork gains 75% of maximum strength in about 28 days. But usually so much waiting is not required. Depending on the characteristics of the cement mortar, further work on the brick wall can be carried out in 3-10 days. In any case, you should not start finishing immediately, as the wall gives a slight shrink when the brickwork is dried.
In general, taking into account the schedule of work, it is more rational to begin pouring the foundation in April-May, so that by the end of the warm season there is an opportunity to finish the walls with ceilings and bring the house under the roof before winter. In this case, the exterior finish of the stone building can be started in the spring of next year.
Exterior finish: durable plastering systems
The issue of meeting deadlines is also extremely important at the stage of exterior decoration of a house, especially if a plaster facade system is chosen for this.
“Now it is a very popular technology for exterior finishing and insulation of private property facades, which provides both a high level of thermal protection of the building and an excellent appearance,” says Polina Nosova, a leading technical specialist of TechnoNICOL, one of the largest manufacturers of reliable and efficient building materials. - Each layer in this multicomponent system has its own role: insulation reduces heat loss through external walls, reinforcing glass cloth mesh prevents the plaster layer from cracking, the base layer of plaster increases the strength of the facade, and the decorative plaster layer has a protective and aesthetic function. "
At each stage of the installation of such a multicomponent system, it is necessary to maintain a strict time frame. The first stage is the preparation of the surface of the outer wall using a primer. It takes at least 6-8 hours to dry. If there are significant irregularities on the surface of the wall, they will have to be leveled with repair plaster. In this case, the next stages of work begin no earlier than three days.
In the next step, the heat-insulating material (for example, stone wool slabs) is glued to the base with an adhesive composition. Front dowels, which serve as an additional fastening of insulation plates, can be installed only 72 hours after gluing the thermal insulation layer.
Next, the base plaster layer is made, when an adhesive composition is applied to the surface of the insulation, into which the reinforcing glass cloth mesh is immersed. This base reinforcing layer also requires 3 days to dry completely. The next step is the application of a quartz primer, which should be allowed to dry for 3 to 6 hours.
Then proceed to the installation of a decorative layer of plaster. The decorative plaster layer seizes for three days, and all this time it should be protected from direct ingress of water and drying. After that, you can start painting it with facade paints, which are applied in two passes. At the same time between the application of layers should take at least 12 hours.
Considering that neither too cold (less than + 5 ° C) nor too hot (more than 30 ° C) and sunny weather is suitable for mounting the plastering system, it is recommended to plan facade works for late spring or early autumn.
Interior decoration of the house
When drafting and finishing the premises are also used a lot of "wet" processes, for which there is a clear time frame. Thus, a very popular base for many types of floors is a concrete screed, which requires a fairly long period to gain sufficient strength.
Experts recommend using an uncomplicated calculation of the time required for the screed to solidify: if its thickness is no more than 4 cm, then a week is required for every centimeter. However, if you need a layer of greater thickness, then for each additional centimeter will take twice as long. For example, a layer with a thickness of 8 cm should last up to 12 weeks. In addition, lower air temperature (less than + 20oC) will increase the curing strength of the cement screed by 2-3 times.
A similar principle is calculated and the drying time of plaster for interior work, for example, to align the walls. According to experts, cement-sand plaster dries at the rate of 1 mm layer per day. That is, for a full setting of a layer of 2 cm, three weeks is enough. Gypsum plaster dries much faster - on average in 4-7 days.
The time factor is also important when installing self-leveling polymer floors based on polyurethane compounds or epoxy resins, which have become popular with cottages. Polymeric liquid formulations spread over the surface and harden, forming a seamless, aesthetic and extremely durable coating.
Bulk floor consists of two layers: basic and finishing. The base layer 2-3 mm thick is applied after 6-12 hours after priming, if you are to apply a polyurethane floor, and after 12-17 hours, if we are talking about an epoxy field. The polymer composition is poured on the floor, the mass spontaneously spreads and aligns. You can walk on a new surface after 24 hours, but it only gains full strength in 3-7 days.
So, the wait remains an integral part of the construction work with the use of "wet" processes. Exact compliance with the regulations is a guarantee of reliability and durability of structures, external and internal decoration of the cottage or cottage. Hurry and rush jobs in such a responsible matter are never justified and only lead to a deterioration in the quality of construction or finishing works.