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Vitamin overview: What vitamins are there and where are they in?

You want to eat healthy, especially vitamin rich, but where are certain vitamins? And what does such a vitamin do in your body? What is he really good for?
For all these questions, the following vitamin summary provides an answer. A clear overview of vitamins that are important to us. Handy to check if you have questions about this.

Vitamin A

Vitamin A is a fat-soluble substance. Is common in liver and cod liver oil.

Vitamin B

Vitamins from the B group include in yeast and liver. Alcoholics sometimes have a shortage of these vitamins due to a deficient diet, which can lead to serious symptoms (the Beri-Beri deficiency disease that is most prevalent in Asia due to the unilateral eating of white rice).

Vitamin C

Vitamin C is an antioxidant, ie a substance that prevents other substances from entering into a connection with harmful free radicals of oxygen. It is easily oxidized by itself and thereby captures the free radicals. It is also added to foodstuffs as a preservative, to applesauce for example. In vitamin C, most people think spontaneously of citrus fruits such as lemons and oranges, but products that contain much more vitamin C are peppers and sprouts. Also berries and potatoes contain quite a lot of vitamin C.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D can be made by the human being just under the skin with the help of sunlight. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin.


For all water-soluble vitamins such as B and C, it is difficult to absorb too much, because the superfluous extra amount is excreted again with the urine. From vitamin A and D it is possible, however, to accumulate too much over the years, which can cause illness symptoms.
For example, vitamin A can be teratogenic when using more than 9 times the RDA per day. A safe daily dose for pregnant women is a maximum of 3 to 4 times the RDA (corresponding to approximately 2500 to 3000 μg (micrograms)) per day. In view of the legal limits for vitamin A in dietary supplements (which are well below these levels), the risk of overdosing by dietary supplements is zero, provided that the recommended dosage is maintained. However, the risk of vitamin A toxicity due to the regular eating of liver is present. Liver is very rich in vitamin A.

Vitamins (overview)
a1a2retinol (axerophthol) 19153,4-dehydroretinalpromotes cornification of epitheliummargarine, milk fat, liver, eggs, fish, fruit, carrot (carrot)derivative of carotene; deficiency: night blindness
B1thiamine (aneurine) 1901as a coenzyme involved in cell metabolismbread, grains (seed skin), milk, meat, potatoes, vegetables, yeastdeficiency: beriberi, tachycardia, reduced reflexes
B2riboflavin (lactoflavin) 1933as part of various enzymes involved in cell metabolismmilk, meat, bread, grain products, vegetables, yeastdeficiency: skin conditions and hair loss; often as a result of heavy alcohol abuse
B3nicotinic acid (niacin) and nicotinamide (niacinamide)as part of coenzyme A involved in the citric acid cyclemilk, potatoes, bread, meat, vegetables, egg yolkdeficiency: dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, pellagra
B5pantothenic acidcomponent coenzyme A (CoA); metabolism of fats and sugarsmeat, eggs, wholemeal products, legumes, milk and milk products and vegetables and fruitdeficiency: cardio-vascular abnormalities, nerve disorders
B6pyridoxine (veinmine) 1934as pyridoxal phosphate involved in cell metabolism
flesh, formation of blood cells, as co-enzyme involved in the formation of RNA and DNA
liver, meat, fish, milk, cheese, eggs, soydeficiency: convulsions, skin conditions and a defective antibody production; often due to heavy alcohol abuse
B8biotin 1941as a coenzyme involved in metabolismlinked to a protein in liver, kidney, egg yolk, yeast, nuts, cerealsdeficiency: skin conditions
B9folic acidname of vitamin B11 in the United States and Germany
B11folic acidas a coenzyme involved in cell metabolismbread, vegetables, meat, milk, eggs, yeastdeficiency: anemia
B12cobalamincoenzyme when converting homocysteine ​​to methionine (folic acid needed)meat, liver, eggs, milk, cheese, marmitedeficiency can lead to pernicious anemia (a severe form of anemia)
B15dimethylglycine and trimethylglycine, (pangamic acid)helps oxygen absorption, methyl donor in methylation reactions, is used in autismoccurs in all cells. is produced there as an intermediate of the conversion of choline to glycine.Can be made by the body itself. The name "vitamin B15" is therefore no longer used
B17amygdalin (also laetril)bitter substance. Some people attribute an anti-carcinogenic effect to it.especially in the pips of various fruits, such as apricots.Can be made by the body itself. The name "vitamin B17" is therefore no longer used.
Bhinositolimportant role as signaling substance ("second messenger") in the body cellwhole-wheat productsCan be made by the body itself. The name "vitamin Bh" is therefore no longer used, however, inositol is still counted among the vitamin B complex.
Bpcholineimportant for structure of cell membrane, neurotransmitter synthesis (acetylcholine) and methyl donor in methylation reactions,eggs, fish, soybeans, wheat, peanuts, organ meats, lean meats, vegetables and breastfeedingCan be made by the body itself. The name "vitamin Bp" is therefore no longer used.
Bwbiotinoutdated name of vitamin B8
CL-ascorbic acid 1932involved in formation of hemoglobin, collagenous tissues and steroid hormonesfruit (especially citrus), potatoes, vegetablestemperature sensitive, own synthesis possible in most mammalian species, except chimpanzee, human and guinea pig. Is an anti-oxidant; deficiency: scurvy.
D2ergocalciferol 1918promotes resorption and deposition of calcium, especially in bones and teethform of vitamin D that occurs in foods such as certain mushrooms and margarineSynthesis from plant sterols; deficiency: English disease (rickets)
D3cholecalciferol 1918same as D2foods of animal origin, such as oily fishis also the form that the skin produces from previtamin D3 or precholecalciferol, under the influence of ultraviolet light; deficiency: muscle cramps, convulsions
Ealpha-tocopherol (D-alpha-tocopherol) 1922non-specific antioxidant in various tissuesvegetable oils, cereals, eggs, leafy vegetables-
Flinoleic acid 1929see linoleic acidin most unsaturated oils (eg sunflower oil)outdated namelinoleic acid is not a vitamin but an essential building material
Hbiotinoutdated name of vitamin B8
K1K3phytomenadione (naphthoquinone) 1935farnoquinoneindispensable for synthesis in the liver of thrombinogen and other blood clotting componentsK1: leaf vegetables (especially cabbage), tomatoes, wheat, eggs, liver, fish2product of the coli bacteria in the intestineis given to infants in the first weeks
Mfolic acidoutdated name of vitamin B9
Pcitrinepromotes the permeability of capillariesoranges, lemonsoutdated name
YOUcabagine (S-Methylmethionine)protective for the mucous membranes of the stomach and intestinescabbage varietiesoutdated name

Vitamins A, D, E, F and K are soluble in fats.
Vitamins B, C, H and P are soluble in water.
The years in the names of the vitamins indicate the year of discovery.

Video: Vitamin Advice : What Are the Benefits of Vitamin B100? (April 2020).