Vitamin overview: What vitamins are there and where are they in?
You want to eat healthy, especially vitamin rich, but where are certain vitamins? And what does such a vitamin do in your body? What is he really good for?
For all these questions, the following vitamin summary provides an answer. A clear overview of vitamins that are important to us. Handy to check if you have questions about this.
Vitamin A is a fat-soluble substance. Is common in liver and cod liver oil.
Vitamins from the B group include in yeast and liver. Alcoholics sometimes have a shortage of these vitamins due to a deficient diet, which can lead to serious symptoms (the Beri-Beri deficiency disease that is most prevalent in Asia due to the unilateral eating of white rice).
Vitamin C is an antioxidant, ie a substance that prevents other substances from entering into a connection with harmful free radicals of oxygen. It is easily oxidized by itself and thereby captures the free radicals. It is also added to foodstuffs as a preservative, to applesauce for example. In vitamin C, most people think spontaneously of citrus fruits such as lemons and oranges, but products that contain much more vitamin C are peppers and sprouts. Also berries and potatoes contain quite a lot of vitamin C.
Vitamin D can be made by the human being just under the skin with the help of sunlight. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin.
For all water-soluble vitamins such as B and C, it is difficult to absorb too much, because the superfluous extra amount is excreted again with the urine. From vitamin A and D it is possible, however, to accumulate too much over the years, which can cause illness symptoms.
For example, vitamin A can be teratogenic when using more than 9 times the RDA per day. A safe daily dose for pregnant women is a maximum of 3 to 4 times the RDA (corresponding to approximately 2500 to 3000 μg (micrograms)) per day. In view of the legal limits for vitamin A in dietary supplements (which are well below these levels), the risk of overdosing by dietary supplements is zero, provided that the recommended dosage is maintained. However, the risk of vitamin A toxicity due to the regular eating of liver is present. Liver is very rich in vitamin A.
|a1a2||retinol (axerophthol) 19153,4-dehydroretinal||promotes cornification of epithelium||margarine, milk fat, liver, eggs, fish, fruit, carrot (carrot)||derivative of carotene; deficiency: night blindness|
|B1||thiamine (aneurine) 1901||as a coenzyme involved in cell metabolism||bread, grains (seed skin), milk, meat, potatoes, vegetables, yeast||deficiency: beriberi, tachycardia, reduced reflexes|
|B2||riboflavin (lactoflavin) 1933||as part of various enzymes involved in cell metabolism||milk, meat, bread, grain products, vegetables, yeast||deficiency: skin conditions and hair loss; often as a result of heavy alcohol abuse|
|B3||nicotinic acid (niacin) and nicotinamide (niacinamide)||as part of coenzyme A involved in the citric acid cycle||milk, potatoes, bread, meat, vegetables, egg yolk||deficiency: dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, pellagra|
|B5||pantothenic acid||component coenzyme A (CoA); metabolism of fats and sugars||meat, eggs, wholemeal products, legumes, milk and milk products and vegetables and fruit||deficiency: cardio-vascular abnormalities, nerve disorders|
|B6||pyridoxine (veinmine) 1934||as pyridoxal phosphate involved in cell metabolism|
flesh, formation of blood cells, as co-enzyme involved in the formation of RNA and DNA
|liver, meat, fish, milk, cheese, eggs, soy||deficiency: convulsions, skin conditions and a defective antibody production; often due to heavy alcohol abuse|
|B8||biotin 1941||as a coenzyme involved in metabolism||linked to a protein in liver, kidney, egg yolk, yeast, nuts, cereals||deficiency: skin conditions|
|B9||folic acid||name of vitamin B11 in the United States and Germany|
|B11||folic acid||as a coenzyme involved in cell metabolism||bread, vegetables, meat, milk, eggs, yeast||deficiency: anemia|
|B12||cobalamin||coenzyme when converting homocysteine to methionine (folic acid needed)||meat, liver, eggs, milk, cheese, marmite||deficiency can lead to pernicious anemia (a severe form of anemia)|
|B15||dimethylglycine and trimethylglycine, (pangamic acid)||helps oxygen absorption, methyl donor in methylation reactions, is used in autism||occurs in all cells. is produced there as an intermediate of the conversion of choline to glycine.||Can be made by the body itself. The name "vitamin B15" is therefore no longer used|
|B17||amygdalin (also laetril)||bitter substance. Some people attribute an anti-carcinogenic effect to it.||especially in the pips of various fruits, such as apricots.||Can be made by the body itself. The name "vitamin B17" is therefore no longer used.|
|Bh||inositol||important role as signaling substance ("second messenger") in the body cell||whole-wheat products||Can be made by the body itself. The name "vitamin Bh" is therefore no longer used, however, inositol is still counted among the vitamin B complex.|
|Bp||choline||important for structure of cell membrane, neurotransmitter synthesis (acetylcholine) and methyl donor in methylation reactions,||eggs, fish, soybeans, wheat, peanuts, organ meats, lean meats, vegetables and breastfeeding||Can be made by the body itself. The name "vitamin Bp" is therefore no longer used.|
|Bw||biotin||outdated name of vitamin B8|
|C||L-ascorbic acid 1932||involved in formation of hemoglobin, collagenous tissues and steroid hormones||fruit (especially citrus), potatoes, vegetables||temperature sensitive, own synthesis possible in most mammalian species, except chimpanzee, human and guinea pig. Is an anti-oxidant; deficiency: scurvy.|
|D2||ergocalciferol 1918||promotes resorption and deposition of calcium, especially in bones and teeth||form of vitamin D that occurs in foods such as certain mushrooms and margarine||Synthesis from plant sterols; deficiency: English disease (rickets)|
|D3||cholecalciferol 1918||same as D2||foods of animal origin, such as oily fish||is also the form that the skin produces from previtamin D3 or precholecalciferol, under the influence of ultraviolet light; deficiency: muscle cramps, convulsions|
|E||alpha-tocopherol (D-alpha-tocopherol) 1922||non-specific antioxidant in various tissues||vegetable oils, cereals, eggs, leafy vegetables||-|
|F||linoleic acid 1929||see linoleic acid||in most unsaturated oils (eg sunflower oil)||outdated namelinoleic acid is not a vitamin but an essential building material|
|H||biotin||outdated name of vitamin B8|
|K1K3||phytomenadione (naphthoquinone) 1935farnoquinone||indispensable for synthesis in the liver of thrombinogen and other blood clotting components||K1: leaf vegetables (especially cabbage), tomatoes, wheat, eggs, liver, fish2product of the coli bacteria in the intestine||is given to infants in the first weeks|
|M||folic acid||outdated name of vitamin B9|
|P||citrine||promotes the permeability of capillaries||oranges, lemons||outdated name|
|YOU||cabagine (S-Methylmethionine)||protective for the mucous membranes of the stomach and intestines||cabbage varieties||outdated name|
Vitamins A, D, E, F and K are soluble in fats.
Vitamins B, C, H and P are soluble in water.
The years in the names of the vitamins indicate the year of discovery.